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Kodi graphene amagwiritsa ntchito chiyani?Milandu iwiri yogwiritsira ntchito imakulolani kuti mumvetsetse chiyembekezo chakugwiritsa ntchito kwa graphene

Mu 2010, Geim ndi Novoselov anapambana mphoto ya Nobel mu physics chifukwa cha ntchito yawo pa graphene.Mphotho imeneyi yachititsa chidwi anthu ambiri.Kupatula apo, si chida chilichonse choyesera cha Nobel Prize chomwe chimakhala chofala ngati tepi yomatira, ndipo sizinthu zonse zofufuzira zomwe zimakhala zamatsenga komanso zosavuta kumva ngati "two-dimensional crystal" graphene.Ntchitoyi mu 2004 ikhoza kuperekedwa mu 2010, zomwe sizipezeka m'mbiri ya Nobel Prize m'zaka zaposachedwa.

Graphene ndi mtundu wazinthu zomwe zimakhala ndi gawo limodzi la maatomu a kaboni omwe amasanjidwa bwino kwambiri kukhala zisa ziwiri za zisa za hexagonal lattice.Monga diamondi, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes ndi amorphous carbon, ndi chinthu (chinthu chosavuta) chopangidwa ndi zinthu za carbon.Monga momwe tawonetsera m'chithunzichi, fullerenes ndi carbon nanotubes amatha kuwonedwa ngati akukulungidwa mwanjira ina kuchokera pamtundu umodzi wa graphene, womwe umayikidwa ndi zigawo zambiri za graphene.The ongolankhula kafukufuku ntchito graphene kufotokoza zimatha zosiyanasiyana mpweya zinthu zosavuta (graphite, carbon nanotubes ndi graphene) unatenga pafupifupi 60 zaka, koma ambiri amakhulupirira kuti zipangizo ziwiri-dimensional ndi zovuta stably alipo yekha, okha Ufumuyo atatu azithunzithunzi gawo lapansi pamwamba kapena zinthu mkati ngati graphite.Sizinafike mpaka 2004 pomwe Andre Geim ndi wophunzira wake Konstantin Novoselov adachotsa gawo limodzi la graphene kuchokera ku graphite kudzera pakuyesa komwe kafukufuku wa graphene adapeza chitukuko chatsopano.

Onse a fullerene (kumanzere) ndi carbon nanotube (pakati) akhoza kuonedwa ngati akukulungidwa ndi wosanjikiza umodzi wa graphene mwanjira ina, pamene graphite (kumanja) zakhala zikuzunza m'miyoyo ndi angapo zigawo za graphene kudzera kugwirizana kwa van der Waals mphamvu.

Masiku ano, graphene ingapezeke m'njira zambiri, ndipo njira zosiyanasiyana zili ndi ubwino ndi zovuta zawo.Geim ndi Novoselov anapeza graphene m'njira yosavuta.Pogwiritsa ntchito tepi yowonekera yomwe imapezeka m'masitolo akuluakulu, adavula graphene, pepala la graphite lokhala ndi maatomu a carbon wokhuthala, kuchokera pachidutswa chapamwamba cha pyrolytic graphite.Izi ndi yabwino, koma controllability si bwino, ndi graphene ndi kukula kwa microns zosakwana 100 (gawo limodzi la magawo khumi la millimeter) angapezeke, amene angagwiritsidwe ntchito zoyeserera, koma n'zovuta kuti ntchito zothandiza. mapulogalamu.Chemical nthunzi mafunsidwe amatha kukulitsa zitsanzo za graphene ndi kukula kwa masentimita makumi pazitsulo.Ngakhale kuti malo omwe ali ndi mawonekedwe osasinthasintha ndi ma microns 100 okha [3,4], akhala oyenera kupanga zofunikira za ntchito zina.Njira ina wamba ndi kutenthetsa pa silicon carbide (SIC) krustalo kuposa 1100 ℃ mu vakuyumu, kuti maatomu pakachitsulo pamwamba nthunzi nthunzi, ndi otsala maatomu mpweya ndi kukonzanso, amene angathenso kupeza zitsanzo graphene ndi katundu wabwino.

Graphene ndi chinthu chatsopano chokhala ndi zinthu zapadera: mphamvu yake yamagetsi ndi yabwino kwambiri ngati mkuwa, ndipo matenthedwe ake amatenthedwa bwino kuposa zinthu zilizonse zodziwika.Ndi zowonekera kwambiri.Ndi gawo laling'ono chabe (2.3%) la kuwala kowoneka bwino komwe kumatengedwa ndi graphene, ndipo kuwala kochuluka kudzadutsa.Ndi wandiweyani kwambiri moti ngakhale maatomu a heliamu (mamolekyu ang'onoang'ono a gasi) sangathe kudutsamo.Zinthu zamatsengazi sizinatengedwe mwachindunji kuchokera ku graphite, koma kuchokera ku quantum mechanics.Mawonekedwe ake apadera amagetsi ndi kuwala amatsimikizira kuti ali ndi mwayi wogwiritsa ntchito.

Ngakhale kuti graphene yangowonekera kwa zaka zosachepera khumi, yawonetsa ntchito zambiri zamakono, zomwe ndizosowa kwambiri pa sayansi ya sayansi ndi zakuthupi.Zimatenga zaka zoposa khumi kapenanso zaka makumi kuti zipangizo zonse zichoke ku labotale kupita ku moyo weniweniwo.Kodi graphene amagwiritsa ntchito chiyani?Tiyeni tione zitsanzo ziwiri.

Elekitirodi yofewa yowonekera
Pazida zamagetsi zambiri, zinthu zowonekera zimafunika kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati ma elekitirodi.Mawotchi amagetsi, zowerengera, ma TV, zowonetsera zamadzimadzi, zowonera, mapanelo adzuwa ndi zida zina zambiri sizingasiye kukhalapo kwa maelekitirodi owonekera.Elekitirodi yowonekera yachikhalidwe imagwiritsa ntchito indium tin oxide (ITO).Chifukwa cha mtengo wapamwamba komanso kuchepa kwa indium, zinthuzo ndizovuta komanso zopanda kusinthasintha, ndipo electrode iyenera kuikidwa pakati pa vacuum, ndipo mtengo wake ndi wokwera kwambiri.Kwa nthawi yaitali, asayansi akhala akuyesera kupeza choloŵa m’malo mwake.Kuphatikiza pa zofunikira za kuwonekera, kuyendetsa bwino komanso kukonzekera kosavuta, ngati kusinthasintha kwa zinthuzo kuli bwino, kudzakhala koyenera kupanga "mapepala apakompyuta" kapena zipangizo zina zowonetsera.Choncho, kusinthasintha ndi mbali yofunika kwambiri.Graphene ndi zinthu zotere, zomwe ndizoyenera kwambiri maelekitirodi owonekera.

Ofufuza ochokera ku Samsung ndi Chengjunguan University ku South Korea adapeza graphene yokhala ndi diagonal kutalika kwa mainchesi 30 ndi kuyika kwa nthunzi wamankhwala ndikusamutsira ku filimu ya 188 micron thick polyethylene terephthalate (PET) kuti apange graphene based touch screen [4].Monga momwe tawonetsera m'chithunzichi, graphene yomwe imakula pazitsulo zamkuwa imamangirizidwa koyamba ndi tepi yotentha yotentha (gawo lowonekera la buluu), kenako zojambulazo zamkuwa zimasungunuka ndi njira yamankhwala, ndipo potsiriza graphene imasamutsidwa ku filimu ya PET ndi kutentha. .

Zida zatsopano zopangira ma photoelectric
Graphene ali ndi mawonekedwe apadera kwambiri.Ngakhale pali gawo limodzi lokha la ma atomu, imatha kuyamwa 2.3% ya kuwala komwe kumatulutsa mumtundu wonse wa mafunde kuchokera ku kuwala kowoneka mpaka infrared.Nambalayi ilibe kanthu kochita ndi magawo ena a graphene ndipo imatsimikiziridwa ndi quantum electrodynamics [6].Kuwala kotengedwa kudzatsogolera ku mbadwo wa zonyamulira (ma elekitironi ndi mabowo).M'badwo ndi mayendedwe a zonyamulira mu graphene ndi osiyana kwambiri ndi anthu semiconductors chikhalidwe.Izi zimapangitsa graphene kukhala yoyenera kwambiri pazida zopangira ma ultrafast photoelectric.Akuti zida zopangira ma photoelectric zitha kugwira ntchito pafupipafupi 500ghz.Ngati itagwiritsidwa ntchito potumiza ma siginecha, imatha kutumiza ziro mabiliyoni 500 kapena ena pa sekondi imodzi, ndikumaliza kutumiza zomwe zili m'ma disc a Blu ray mu sekondi imodzi.

Akatswiri ochokera ku IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center ku United States agwiritsa ntchito graphene kupanga zida zopangira ma photoelectric zomwe zimatha kugwira ntchito pafupipafupi 10GHz [8].Choyamba, ma graphene flakes adakonzedwa pa gawo lapansi la silicon lomwe limakutidwa ndi silika wokhuthala 300 nm ndi "njira yoboola tepi", kenako maelekitirodi agolide a palladium kapena titaniyamu okhala ndi 1 micron ndi m'lifupi mwake 250 nm adapangidwa.Mwanjira iyi, chida chopangira graphene chochokera ku chithunzi chamagetsi chimapezedwa.

Chithunzi chojambula cha graphene photoelectric induction zida ndi scanning electron microscope (SEM) zithunzi za zitsanzo zenizeni.Mzere wakuda wakuda pachithunzichi umafanana ndi ma microns 5, ndipo mtunda pakati pa mizere yachitsulo ndi micron imodzi.

Kupyolera mu zoyesera, ofufuzawo adapeza kuti chipangizochi chachitsulo cha graphene chitsulo chojambula chithunzithunzi chimatha kufika pamtunda wa 16ghz kwambiri, ndipo chimatha kugwira ntchito mofulumira pamtundu wa wavelength kuchokera ku 300 nm (pafupi ndi ultraviolet) mpaka 6 microns (infuraredi), pamene chubu chachikhalidwe cha photoelectric induction sichingayankhe ku kuwala kwa infrared ndi kutalika kwa mafunde.Kugwira ntchito pafupipafupi kwa zida za graphene photoelectric induction kumakhalabe ndi mwayi wowongolera.Kuchita kwake kwapamwamba kumapangitsa kukhala ndi mwayi wochuluka wogwiritsa ntchito, kuphatikizapo kulankhulana, kulamulira kutali ndi kuyang'anira chilengedwe.

Monga zinthu zatsopano zokhala ndi zinthu zapadera, kafukufuku wokhudza kugwiritsa ntchito graphene akutuluka wina ndi mnzake.Ndizovuta kwa ife kuti tiwerenge iwo apa.M'tsogolomu, pangakhale machubu opangidwa ndi graphene, masiwichi a maselo opangidwa ndi graphene ndi zowunikira ma cell zopangidwa ndi graphene pamoyo watsiku ndi tsiku… Graphene yomwe imatuluka pang'onopang'ono mu labotale idzawala m'moyo watsiku ndi tsiku.

Titha kuyembekezera kuti zinthu zambiri zamagetsi zogwiritsa ntchito graphene zidzawonekera posachedwa.Ganizirani za momwe zingasangalatse ngati mafoni athu a m'manja ndi ma netibook angakulidwe, kumatingidwa m'makutu, kuyika m'matumba athu, kapena kukulunga m'manja mwathu pamene sakugwiritsidwa ntchito!


Nthawi yotumiza: Mar-09-2022